Link Search Menu Expand Document

This documentation remains in a beta state. It has content gaps and might contain bugs.

Data types

The following table shows the data types supported by the SQL plugin and how each one maps to SQL and OpenSearch data types:

OpenSearch SQL Type OpenSearch Type SQL Type
boolean boolean BOOLEAN
byte byte TINYINT
short byte SMALLINT
integer integer INTEGER
long long BIGINT
float float REAL
half_float float FLOAT
scaled_float float DOUBLE
double double DOUBLE
keyword string VARCHAR
text text VARCHAR
date timestamp TIMESTAMP
ip ip VARCHAR
date timestamp TIMESTAMP
binary binary VARBINARY
object struct STRUCT
nested array STRUCT

In addition to this list, the SQL plugin also supports the datetime type, though it doesn’t have a corresponding mapping with OpenSearch or SQL. To use a function without a corresponding mapping, you must explicitly convert the data type to one that does.

Date and time types

The date and time types represent a time period: DATE, TIME, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, and INTERVAL. By default, the OpenSearch DSL uses the date type as the only date-time related type that contains all information of an absolute time point.

To integrate with SQL, each type other than the timestamp type holds part of the time period information. To use date-time functions, see datetime. Some functions might have restrictions for the input argument type.

Date

The date type represents the calendar date regardless of the time zone. A given date value is a 24-hour period, but this period varies in different timezones and might have flexible hours during daylight saving programs. The date type doesn’t contain time information and it only supports a range of 1000-01-01 to 9999-12-31.

Type Syntax Range
date yyyy-MM-dd 0001-01-01 to 9999-12-31

Time

The time type represents the time of a clock regardless of its timezone. The time type doesn’t contain date information.

Type Syntax Range
time hh:mm:ss[.fraction] 00:00:00.000000 to 23:59:59.999999

Datetime

The datetime type is a combination of date and time. It doesn’t contain timezone information. For an absolute time point that contains date, time, and timezone information, see Timestamp.

Type Syntax Range
datetime yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss[.fraction] 0001-01-01 00:00:00.000000 to 9999-12-31 23:59:59.999999

Timestamp

The timestamp type is an absolute instance independent of timezone or convention. For example, for a given point of time, if you change the timestamp to a different timezone, its value changes accordingly.

The timestamp type is stored differently from the other types. It’s converted from its current timezone to UTC for storage and converted back to its set timezone from UTC when it’s retrieved.

Type Syntax Range
timestamp yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss[.fraction] 0001-01-01 00:00:01.000000 UTC to 9999-12-31 23:59:59.999999

Interval

The interval type represents a temporal duration or a period.

Type Syntax
interval INTERVAL expr unit

The expr unit is any expression that eventually iterates to a quantity value. It represents a unit for interpreting the quantity, including MICROSECOND, SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR, DAY, WEEK, MONTH, QUARTER, and YEAR. The INTERVAL keyword and the unit specifier are not case sensitive.

The interval type has two classes of intervals: year-week intervals and day-time intervals.

  • Year-week intervals store years, quarters, months, and weeks.
  • Day-time intervals store days, hours, minutes, seconds, and microseconds.

Convert between date and time types

Apart from the interval type, all date and time types can be converted to each other. The conversion might alter the value or cause some information loss. For example, when extracting the time value from a datetime value, or converting a date value to a datetime value, and so on.

The SQL plugin supports the following conversion rules for each of the types:

Convert from date

  • Because the date value doesn’t have any time information, conversion to the time type isn’t useful and always returns a zero time value of 00:00:00.
  • Converting from date to datetime has a data fill-up due to the lack of time information. It attaches the time 00:00:00 to the original date by default and forms a datetime instance. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 to a datetime type is 2020-08-17 00:00:00.
  • Converting to timestamp type alternates both the time value and the timezone information. It attaches the zero time value 00:00:00 and the session timezone (UTC by default) to the date. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 to a datetime type with a session timezone UTC is 2020-08-17 00:00:00 UTC.

Convert from time

  • You cannot convert the time type to any other date and time types because it doesn’t contain any date information.

Convert from datetime

  • Converting datetime to date extracts the date value from the datetime value. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 14:09:00 to a date type is 2020-08-08.
  • Converting datetime to time extracts the time value from the datetime value. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 14:09:00 to a time type is 14:09:00.
  • Because the datetime type doesn’t contain timezone information, converting to timestamp type fills up the timezone value with the session timezone. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 14:09:00 (UTC) to a timestamp type is 2020-08-17 14:09:00 UTC.

Convert from timestamp

  • Converting from a timestamp type to a date type extracts the date value and converting to a time type extracts the time value. Converting from a timestamp type to datetime type extracts only the datetime value and leaves out the timezone value. For example, conversion of 2020-08-17 14:09:00 UTC to a date type is 2020-08-17, to a time type is 14:09:00, and to a datetime type is 2020-08-17 14:09:00.