Link Search Menu Expand Document

This documentation remains in a beta state. It has content gaps and might contain bugs.

Bulk

The bulk operation lets you add, update, or delete many documents in a single request. Compared to individual OpenSearch indexing requests, the bulk operation has significant performance benefits. Whenever practical, we recommend batching indexing operations into bulk requests.

Example

POST _bulk
{ "delete": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt2229499" } }
{ "index": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt1979320" } }
{ "title": "Rush", "year": 2013 }
{ "create": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt1392214" } }
{ "title": "Prisoners", "year": 2013 }
{ "update": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt0816711" } }
{ "doc" : { "title": "World War Z" } }

Path and HTTP methods

POST _bulk
POST {index}/_bulk

Specifying the index in the path means you don’t need to include it in the request body.

OpenSearch also accepts PUT requests to the _bulk path, but we highly recommend using POST. The accepted usage of PUT—adding or replacing a single resource at a given path—doesn’t make sense for bulk requests.

URL parameters

All bulk URL parameters are optional.

Parameter Type Description
pipeline String The pipeline ID for preprocessing documents.
refresh Enum Whether to refresh the affected shards after performing the indexing operations. Default is false. true makes the changes show up in search results immediately, but hurts cluster performance. wait_for waits for a refresh. Requests take longer to return, but cluster performance doesn’t suffer.
require_alias Boolean Set to true to require that all actions target an index alias rather than an index. Default is false.
routing String Routes the request to the specified shard.
timeout Time How long to wait for the request to return. Default 1m.
type String (Deprecated) The default document type for documents that don’t specify a type. Default is _doc. We highly recommend ignoring this parameter and using a type of _doc for all indices.
wait_for_active_shards String Specifies the number of active shards that must be available before OpenSearch processes the bulk request. Default is 1 (only the primary shard). Set to all or a positive integer. Values greater than 1 require replicas. For example, if you specify a value of 3, the index must have two replicas distributed across two additional nodes for the request to succeed.

Request body

The bulk request body follows this pattern:

Action and metadata\n
Optional document\n
Action and metadata\n
Optional document\n

The optional JSON document doesn’t need to be minified—spaces are fine—but it does need to be on a single line. OpenSearch uses newline characters to parse bulk requests and requires that the request body end with a newline character.

All actions support the same metadata: _index, _id, and _require_alias. If you don’t provide an ID, OpenSearch generates one automatically, which can make it challenging to update the document at a later time.

  • Create

    Creates a document if it doesn’t already exist and returns an error otherwise. The next line must include a JSON document.

    { "create": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt1392214" } }
    { "title": "Prisoners", "year": 2013 }
    
  • Delete

    This action deletes a document if it exists. If the document doesn’t exist, OpenSearch doesn’t return an error, but instead returns not_found under result. Delete actions don’t require documents on the next line.

    { "delete": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt2229499" } }
    
  • Index

    Index actions create a document if it doesn’t yet exist and replace the document if it already exists. The next line must include a JSON document.

    { "index": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt1979320" } }
    { "title": "Rush", "year": 2013}
    
  • Update

    This action updates existing documents and returns an error if the document doesn’t exist. The next line must include a full or partial JSON document, depending on how much of the document you want to update. It can also include a script or upsert for more complex document updates.

    { "update": { "_index": "movies", "_id": "tt0816711" } }
    { "doc" : { "title": "World War Z" } }
    

Response

In the response, pay particular attention to the top-level errors boolean. If true, you can iterate over the individual actions for more detailed information.

{
  "took": 11,
  "errors": true,
  "items": [
    {
      "index": {
        "_index": "movies",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "tt1979320",
        "_version": 1,
        "result": "created",
        "_shards": {
          "total": 2,
          "successful": 1,
          "failed": 0
        },
        "_seq_no": 1,
        "_primary_term": 1,
        "status": 201
      }
    },
    {
      "create": {
        "_index": "movies",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "tt1392214",
        "status": 409,
        "error": {
          "type": "version_conflict_engine_exception",
          "reason": "[tt1392214]: version conflict, document already exists (current version [1])",
          "index": "movies",
          "shard": "0",
          "index_uuid": "yhizhusbSWmP0G7OJnmcLg"
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "update": {
        "_index": "movies",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "tt0816711",
        "status": 404,
        "error": {
          "type": "document_missing_exception",
          "reason": "[_doc][tt0816711]: document missing",
          "index": "movies",
          "shard": "0",
          "index_uuid": "yhizhusbSWmP0G7OJnmcLg"
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}